How to Cite a Paper in MLA
If you are a high school or college student, then there will definitely be a time when you find yourself in a position in which you need to cite a research paper, dissertation, annotated bibliography etc. There are various styles of formatting, but the most commonly used ones are the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. Using these formatting styles helps to ensure that the writers do not engage in plagiarism and it also simplifies the process of locating sources used within the essay. EssayHub will teach you how to cite a research paper using MLA Format correctly.
What is MLA Formatting?
MLA is the formatting style of the Modern Language Association. It is used in areas such as English studies, comparative literature, foreign language and literature or cultural studies. It is an academic style guide extensively used in the United States, Canada, and other countries. It mostly provides guidelines for writing and documentation of research in humanities and English literature.
Formatting The Front Page
There are four key components that come with setting up your research paper within proper MLA rules:
Page Margins should be EXACTLY 1 inch on both sides of the text.
Set the line spacing from single to double-spaced. This makes reading the text less crammed on the eye and allows the professor to make necessary comments in a neat and organized manner.
Create a header that has your last name as well as the automatic page number. This is done to keep track of the page order, and it also looks pleasant on the eye!
Lastly, enter the required course information on the top-left corner of the front page. It should look like this:
- Full Name
- Name of Teacher/Professor
- Name of Course
- Due Date for Assignment
The In-text Citation
When citing a research paper, include references within two sections:
1. The quotes used within the essay
2. The Works Cited page at the end
The citation information in the body of the paper itself is called the "in-text citation”. The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you use a quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author.
You need to list the writer’s last name and page number enclosed within parentheses straight after the quote. If the author's name is included as a feature of your sentence, then you only have to include the page number in the bracket.
“Two roads diverged in a wood, and I -- I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all the difference” (Frost 1).
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).
As you can see, Burke’s name was included in the sentence, so there is no need for repetition in the citation.
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors
If your source includes two authors, the mla format citation implies that you mention both of their last names separated by the word “and.” This inclusion may be directly in the text of a sentence; for example, Wilson and Anderson provide the next information (47), or in parentheses after the provided mla in text citation (Wilson and Anderson 47).
If your source was written by multiple contributors, then you need to include all their names. If the citation becomes too lengthy, write the first author’s name and add “and others.” For example, Johnson and others claim that…(55).
In the case of parenthetical citation and Works Cited page’s entry of a source with more than three authors, you need to provide the first author’s name followed by et al. For example, (Johnson et al. 55).
In-Text Citation For Unknown Author
When you do citation mla with an unknown author, you should provide the first couple of words of a source in the text. Don’t count the initial articles like “The”, “A”, or “An”. There should not be too many words, but a reader needs to understand what source you refer to.
If the name of a source is in italics, then put italics in the in text citations. For example, (Animal Biology 35). If the name of a source is in quotation marks, put them in the in-text citation as well. For example, (“Modern Medicine” 131).
In-Text Citation For More Than One Source
If you need mla citing for more than one source for a single citation, then write the sources as usual and use a semicolon to separate them. The sources in the in-text citation may not follow in alphabetic order as on the Works Cited page. For example, (It Takes Two; Smith 150).
In-Text Citations with Repeated Use of Sources
One of the most frequent questions is how to do in text citations with a source that is used more than once in a text. To do so, you may provide a simplified in-text citation. It means that the first citation uses the full citation, and the further ones simply show the page referenced.
For example, “This block of text serves as an example (Smith 74). If you want to cite the next sentence with the same source, then you may simply state the page (94).”
If simplified citation causes ambiguity in the text, then you should provide a full citation of a source.
When you paraphrase information from the source in your own words, use mla in text citations at the end of your passage. In case you are paraphrasing information from a single page, include the full citation with the author’s name and the page number. For example, “This block of text serves as an example of paraphrasing from a single page (Hunt 69).”
In the case when you borrow the ideas from multiple pages, then your in text citations mla should include them. For example, “This block of the text demonstrates an example of citation from multiple pages (Hunt 58, 66, 73-75).”
One of the most frequent questions concerning the citation is how to cite quotes directly. If you use a direct quote from a source, enclose it in quotation marks and add the author’s name and page number at the end. For example, “This text demonstrates the format of a direct quote” (Smith 66).
If you make a direct mla quote citation from a web source without page numbers, then provide just the name of an author. For example, “This text is quoted directly from a source without pages” (Anderson).
There are cases when you need to cite a significant block of text. The natural question is how to cite an article mla. If your quotation exceeds the four lines of your essay, then it is considered a long quotation and must follow different rules for intext citation. You need to end the line before the quotation with a colon. A long quotation must indent half an inch from the rest of the text to look like a block of text that differs from the rest of mla format quotes. Do not use quotation marks around the long quote. The period comes before your citation and not after it, as it happens with a regular quotation. A long mla in text citation example:
This block of the text demonstrates the format of a long citation.
It must exceed four lines of text to be a long quotation. Moreover,
it has no quotation marks around it. When you end a long quotation,
you need to place a period before the citation. (Anderson 250)
The Detailed Information
- References: When providing references within your research paper, the readers must be informed about the origin of the sources from where you are citing your information. The reference page is known as the "Works Cited". This page is where the author gives credit to the source. Things that are placed within a citation include: alphabetical order of authors last name, a title of article and date issued.
- Follow this format exactly: Author(s)-> "Title of Article." ->Title of Journal Volume.->Issue (Year): pages
- Electronic Sources: For electronic sources utilize the inventor's name and page number or area number for in-substance references. This is only if the information does not have page or section numbers by any methods. By then, you would include the author's name in the section after you have referred to the recorded information.
Selecting An Appropriate Method of the In-text Citation
In-text citations are most times parenthetical, which means that information are always added to the end of the sentence in parentheses. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation. For example, if the author's name is found within the in-text citation, then there is no need to add it at the end; simply add the page number, and your referencing is finished!
Arrangement of the In-text Citation
Having two sources from the same author of an in-text citation may confuse the reader. When they check the source of the citation, they will find two different articles. To avoid this confusion, you must include a short title of the research citation, so the readers know which of the citations to look for.
When a source has two or three authors, you should include all authors' last names. Whereas, when you have four or more authors then you have to write them all out following the last name of the first Author.
Does It Still Feel Like A Herculean Task?
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