There are different standards and styles for presenting citation information and references to elaborate your writing. However, only these adhere to the standard requirements the most:
- Chicago style citation;
- Turabian citation.
Chicago style is the oldest and is used mainly in history, social sciences, art, musicology, and literature. If I decide to write my essay, this is the best option. Turabian style is a simplification of the Chicago style and is used regularly in papers on humanities topics. This article will explain the main differences between these two and all the nuances.
Difference Between Chicago and Turabian Styles
Before we get into details of Chicago Turabian citation, let's compare the two styles and determine their main differences. The Turabian and Chicago styles are almost similar.
The most significant distinction between the Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian is the note numbering pattern. A number in parentheses is followed by the time, a space, and the source data in Chicago.
In the body of the article and the footnotes, Turabian uses superscript. The superscript number accompanies the source details.
Turabian also has two citation forms (Author-Date and Notes-Bibliography), and you should review your task directions to see the one your instructor prefers.
Chicago Formatting Guidelines
Here are the main requirements for any work written in Chicago Turabian format.
- The margins must be adjusted to a minimum width of 2.54 cm and a maximum of 3.81 cm.
- To easily read the font, either Palantino or Times New Roman should be chosen.
- The font size cannot be less than 10 points (preferably 12 points).
- There must be double spacing between lines, except for single spacing in block quotes (long quotes highlighted with indentation), table titles, and figure titles.
- A Turabian style citation that consists of more than five lines should be put in a block quotation.
- A block quote is not enclosed in quotes.
- Additional input must precede and follow the quote.
- There must be single spacing between the lines of notes and bibliography; however, a blank line must be left between the listings.
- Chicago style page numbers begin with the Arabic numeral 1 in the first-page header.
- Subheadings are used for longer documents. Custom formatting of subheadings is allowed, but it must be consistent throughout the document. A blank line should follow each subheading. The period after the subheadings is not required.
Main Paper Sections
The main paper section in Chicago format includes the title page, main body, references, and bibliography. Below, you will find precious and detailed information about every aspect of the right formatting that any good essay writer knows.
Chicago style title page is not always necessary in the class papers because students can sometimes include the title on the article's first page. If a Turabian title page is required, then the following tricks will be useful.
- To center a title, remember that it should be a third of the way down the page.
- Then, a few lines below, provide your name, class information, and the date.
- The subtitle should be placed on the line below the title.
- Each line of the title page should always be double-spaced.
- The first words of titles and subtitles, as well as any significant words after that, should be capitalized "headline-style" in the text, notes, and bibliography.
- According to the work style, titles in annotations, bibliographies, and the text are formatted with italics or quotation marks.
- Italicize the names of books and periodicals (titles of longer works).
- Double quotation marks will help you surround chapter titles and articles (titles of shorter works).
- The names of certain poems should be embedded in double quotation marks. If you use the titles of longer poems, then don’t forget to italicize them.
- The italicization of plays titles is recommended.
- Otherwise, go with a straightforward approach.
Here are all the nuances of the Chicago style reference page.
- Publisher names may be slightly abbreviated by Ltd., Inc., Co., etc.
- If the publication has been introduced in several places, only the first place is shown. If it is little known or can be confused with another location of the same name (for example, Cambridge), then the name of the province or state is given in a postal abbreviation without dots (Cambridge, MA).
- If one source has two authors, write the name of the first author, then add the conjunction "and," and indicate the second author's name.
- For books whose authorship belongs to more than three persons but less than ten, all surnames and names are given in full.
- If the work has more than ten authors (for example, in the exact sciences), only the first seven should be fully indicated on the Turabian reference page; other names can be replaced with "etc."
Source Citation Styles
Chicago/Turabian style offers several formats to choose from. It is permissible to combine methods of referencing the source within the style as long as the outcome is simple and clear text. The manual describes two citation formats.
- Notes and bibliography format is also known as the liberal arts style. The bibliography or page footnotes (or endnotes) include references to sources.
- Chicago author date format is also known as the social science style. In the text and the list of sources used, the author and date of the source are shown in brackets.
However, the Chicago Style Handbook places more emphasis on the note/bibliography format. It is recommended that the source be cited in both footnotes and bibliographies, but this is not essential. Although this practice is still common in humanitarian educational institutions, it is better to clarify this issue with the teacher. If it is decided to exclude the bibliographic list, then the footnotes must contain full information about the citation source.
When mentioning the work in a footnote for the first time, details of the publication must be provided. All subsequent notes on this work can be shortened. On the other hand, if the bibliographic list includes all the sources cited in the footnotes, then in the notes, it is possible not to indicate the full data on the publication.
Notes and Bibliography
It is common for educators to demand a system of bibliographic footnotes in an essay or report, and they might require either Chicago style footnotes or Turabian footnotes. Keep these essential general formatting considerations in mind when creating these notes.
- In case they refer to the same documents or texts, the style in your footnotes should be different from the formatting in your bibliographic citations. For example, there are commas in each footnote which separate the items such as title and author, and there must be a period at the end of the entire note.
- Enter notes in a single space with a full space between individual notes.
- In a bibliographic record, elements (for example, author and title) are separated by a period.
- Use the entire quote when referring to some source for the first time; after that, use a shortened version, such as the author's name or the title's part and the page number. If you mention the same link in several quotes, you should use the abbreviation there.
- If your article has several chapters, numbers should begin with 1 and continue in numerical order. Always use Arabic numerals.
- Never reuse a note number, and don’t use Chicago style endnotes in the middle of a sentence.
Full Notes vs. Short Notes
So, how to do footnotes? Full notes and short notes are just different forms of citations. If you want to add a piece of complete source information, you will use a full note. The short notes will only provide the author's last name, the source title of the cited passage, and the page number.
Notes can contain links to books or magazine articles, or they can include your own comments. They are used as some kind of additional information and clarify the main points of your article. They can be fascinating details that are important to have, but sometimes they can distract from the flow of the story. Now let's move to the footnotes examples.
Note Citation Examples
The author's name and the source's title are often included in the Chicago footnote or endnote reference. The remaining elements differ depending on the kind of source you're referencing.
If an edition is mentioned, use it in abbreviation when citing a publication (e.g., 2nd ed.). If the text can be found online, you will have to provide the URL in your Chicago website citation:
Hannes Datta, "The Challenge of Retaining Customers Acquired with Free Trials," Journal of Marketing Research 52, no. 2 (2015): 220, www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.
Let's have a look at the decent example of the Chicago style book citation. A full note will look like this:
James Knighton Condon, The Bombay Plague (1867), 20.
And a short note will be here:
Condon, The Bombay Plague, 20.
If you want to highlight a specific chapter, then the full note will have to look like this:
Henry David Thoreau, "Walking," in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D'Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
For citing a journal article, you have to add a page number:
Brian T. Wygal and Stephan M. Heidenreich, "Deglaciation and Human Colonization of Northern Europe," Journal of World Prehistory 27, no. 2 (August 2014): 111-144.
Bibliography Citation Examples
All your sources' full references should be mentioned in the bibliography. It can be found at the end of your document (before any appendices).
- If you want to add a specific book to the whole list of sources, here is the example of how to compose a full citation in a Chicago style bibliography or even a Turabian bibliography:
Alexander, Jocelyn, McGregor, JoAnn, and Ranger, Terence. Violence & Memory: One Hundred Years in the "Dark Forests" of Matabeleland. Oxford: James Currey, 2000. Accessed March 10, 2021.
- This is how you should add journal articles citations to your bibliography:
Adler, Jeffrey S. "Cognitive Bias: Interracial Homicide in New Orleans, 1921-1945." The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43, no. 1 (Summer 2012): 43-61.
- Any website content you have used in your article should be cited like this:
- Or here is a shortened version:
Chicago author date citation is another one of the two Chicago styles. Parenthetical in-text citations are used in this manner to remind readers that the entire citation for the material you've used can be found in the reference list at the end. Now let's talk about Chicago in text citation. It usually includes:
- the name of the author;
- the year when the source was published;
- the number of its pages.
Turabian in text citation can be found at the end of the sentence and usually looks like this:
A great sociocultural revolution is now sweeping our world (Weinstein 2010, 3-4).
If you create the reference list, you will have to organize all the cited material in alphabetical order based on authors' names. Here is an example of such citation:
Pratt, Renate, Tutu, Archbishop Desmond M. (preface), and Hutchinson, Roger (foreword). In Good Faith: Canadian Churches Against Apartheid. Wilfrid Laurier University Press; Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion, 1997.
Here are the other examples of parenthetical in-text citations we have discussed above, as well as their full citations in the "Works Cited" or "References" list.
- Chicago citation journal or newspaper article in a reference list:
Baker, A. 2014. "Connecticut Students Show Gains in National Tests." New York Times, May 7, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/nyregion/national-assessment-of-educational-progress-results-in-Connecticut-and-New-Jersey.html.
And this is how it would look like in the text: (Baker 2014).
- How to cite a book Chicago style in a Reference list?
Weinstein, Jay A. 2010. Social Change (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Rowman & Littlefield.
Here is an in-text example: (Weinstein 2010, 32).
- Chicago style website citation:
Smith, John. n.d. "Obama Inaugurated as President." CNN.com. Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html.
The in-text version: (Smith, n.d.).
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